The state is a political institution. It is considered to be the most important, powerful and sovereign institution. It dominates all social and political institutions. It has become an essential and essential part of our social life. The state was established to regulate and improve interpersonal relationships. It is also there to avoid disagreements, conflicts and tensions in human society. Today’s modern states originate from the urban states of ancient Greece and medieval Europe. Athens, Sparta, Stogra, Tabas, and Corinth were some of the most important cities of antiquity. Ancient city-states became popular in the 5th and 6th centuries BC. The city-states of ancient Greece and Rome were easy and small.
At the beginning of the Middle Ages, illegal rule existed in Europe. During this period the landowners gained power over the peasants and peasants. In modern times, a separate political institution, i.e. the state, has emerged. The theory of national self-determination led to the emergence of the modern state system.
As the state is considered an essential and universal institution, it is a center of study in political science. But it is noteworthy that political thinkers and writers do not agree on the definition of government. The differences between them are primarily the differences in their perspective on the nature of the tendency to give color to their definitions. The differences in perspective are due to the fact that different writers have tried to define the state from their own point of view.
Garner: “According to political law and public law, the community of individuals who hold more or less permanently a certain part of the state is free or almost free from external control and organized government. Many people follow the practice.”
Bluntschli: “The state is a collection of individuals in the form of state, in a particular area, united with a morally organized male personality, or, more quickly, politically organized people in a particular area.
Woodrow Wilson: The state is “people organized for the rule of law within a particular area.”
Holland: “Most people occupy a particular territory.
H.J. Laski: “The state is a local community, divided into government and courses, claiming ownership within its allotted body area and dominating all other institutions.”
R.M. Maciver: “A law-abiding government empowers the state for this purpose, while maintaining the global external conditions of social order within a locally divided community.”
J.W. Burgess: The state “sees a particular part of humanity as an organized unity.”
Simply put, a state is defined as “a group of people who are subject to external authority and hold a particular territory under an organized government.”
Essential Features of the State
A careful and critical examination of the above definitions shows that the state consists of four essential elements: population, region, state and sovereignty. Recently, international recognition has been added to the components of the state. A detailed discussion of these elements of the state will give us a comprehensive understanding of the state.
State is primarily a human entity, it must have a population. We cannot imagine the absence of human beings. Population is the first and foremost factor in the state. A government cannot and will not live without people, because some must rule and others must rule. A desert inhabited by humans is not considered a state. The demographic policy of a state includes, on a permanent basis, all persons residing in the area. This includes citizens, minors and aliens.
Political thinkers have expressed differing views on the size of the population of a state. Plato, in his book Laws, set the number of citizens for a suitable state at 5040. His disciple Aristotle did not want to be associated with a particular person. His opinion is that the population of a state should not be too large or too small. Likewise, Rousseau was a big fan of small republics and direct democracy, thinking 10,000 people would be an ideal number. Their argument is that good governance is not possible if the population is large and obese.
The region is the second physical component of the state. People do not become a state unless they occupy a certain area. It is not a situation where nomads and gypsies wander from one place to another. Region refers to the geographical area of the state. It is owned and controlled by a sovereign government. Territory is an indispensable factor in creating a state, living together on the same land is a powerful factor in creating unity, without which the state cannot survive.
- History of Commerce in India
The territory of a state includes its land, local water and land. Explain as follows. A) Inland land, mountains, tunnels, rivers and lakes. b) The sea around the territory of a state is considered to be the territory of that state. This is called “local water”. Previously, the local water limit was three nautical miles, but now the limit has been extended to twelve nautical miles. c) The terrain is above its surface.
The Government is the third essential component of the state. The term state can be defined as a political organization that is conducive to directing, controlling and controlling human activities and working together effectively to solve their common problems most effectively and efficiently. The government carries out its functions through the state. Corner says: “The state is the institution or machine that determines public policy, regulates public affairs and promotes the public interest”.
The Government is an institution, an instrument or system through which the will of the state is designed, expressed and realized. We cannot imagine a state without a state because it operates by the will of the state and the government. Without a government, without collective action, the people will be an organized, unorganized and anarchic people. Therefore, the organization of the state is not only essential for maintaining law and order, punishing offenders, protecting law abiding citizens and promoting the public interest.
Sovereignty is the fourth and most important element of the state. It is this factor that sets the state apart from other organizations. This is unique to the state. There is an area with people and government but without sovereignty it cannot be called a state. Sovereignty is a feature of the state, without which a social system cannot be transformed into a state. The true meaning of sovereignty is domination or the supreme power of the state. It is state-owned. It makes a state independent and superior.
Sovereignty refers to the independence of a state from external control on the one hand and the domination of all individuals and institutions within the territorial boundaries of the state on the other. Sovereignty is defined as the supreme power of the state so that only the state can obey its authority and exercise its policies with unlimited power. It is this sovereign power that sets the state apart from other associations. It has the power to transform all associations within the state into associations of associations.
Sovereignty has two sides – internal and external. Internal sovereignty, however, is superior to all individuals and institutions within the state. External sovereignty is related to the independence of the state in foreign relations with other states.
This is another and more recent component of the state. In modern times many human beings have grown up and many international organizations have developed. Some scholars have therefore argued that international recognition has become an essential component of the state. A state becomes a state because it has four characteristics: population, region, state and sovereignty. It must be recognized by other states as a state. But the refusal of one or more states to grant recognition does not detract from its legal state status.
Each state must recognize the other sovereign states. Some international organizations, such as the United Nations, give such recognition. UN membership is a way of recognizing the sovereignty of a country. When a new government comes into force, it is considered very necessary that it be approved by other states and the United Nations.